This publication discusses the topic of using direct observation techniques. “Most evaluation teams conduct some fieldwork, observing what's actually going on at assistance activity sites. Often this is done informally, without much thought to the quality of data collection. Direct observation techniques allow for a more systematic, structured process, using well-designed observation record forms.” This document was published by USAID in 2011. It is one of a series of TIPS that provide practical advice and suggestions related to performance monitoring and evaluation.