Special Provisions For Minority Groups  

Criteria specifying fairness for minority groups within a country focus on the electoral outcome, rather than the process, of redistricting. Electoral systems that rely on single-member districts, however, cannot guarantee proportional representation or even some minimal percentage of seats for ethnic, racial, religious or other minority groups in the population. This is particularly true of electoral systems that rely solely on single-member districts for the election of representatives (i.e., FPTP and AV systems). On the other hand, List PR and Mixed systems – such as Parallel and MMP systems – can accommodate requirements for minority representation within the context of the party lists if so desired.